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Tigerair Review


I admit to being the biggest budget traveller. I do love luxury but seeing the cheapest flight always gets me pushing the ‘book now’ button quicker than I can say “What about Virgin Australia or Qantas?”. That is why on routes, such as Perth to Melbourne, Tigerair are usually my go to. With flights often for less than $200 one way they sure have me hooked. I remember one time I snagged a flight for $99! Now that had me smiling from ear-to-ear.

My regular line when I get off my flight with Tigerair is “I am never flying them again” but I do. As I said the price is just too tempting for a stingy budget traveller like me.

WARNING: Some of the following information may be disturbing to Business Class travellers!

Seat and amenities
The seating is definitely tight. With a seat pitch of 28/29 inches things can get uncomfortable. Lucky for me I’m a mere 5 feet 2 inches but the poor man next to me who was about 6 foot really struggled! Exit-row seats have a 38/39 inch pitch so will definitely be a little more comfortable. My thought is by the time you pay extra for the exit-row you may as well just fly a different airline.

Customer service on board
So you might arrive at your seat ready for battle with airline staff. After all they are a budget airline so wouldn’t they skimp on their service too? However this is where I believe Tigerair take things up a notch. Staff are friendly and even assist with putting your bags in the overhead lockers. Unlike some airlines, staff members are not dismissive and don’t rush through cabin service.

Food and drinks, including tea, coffee and water are available for purchase. Their menu even pokes fun at Qantas celebrity chef Neil Perry. Written on the menu it says, “Our new Tigerair menu is not designed by Neil Perry or served on designer plates, but that means it doesn’t cost $25 for a sandwich”. I don’t know about you but I sure like their sense of humour!

Inflight entertainment
Apart from an inflight magazine don’t expect much else in the form of entertainment. Be prepared with something to do during your flight or you might find yourself counting sheep.

Hints and tips
1. Don’t be late! For those who have been in the unfortunate situation of running late for your flight with Tigerair you would have learnt the hard way! The airline offers no sympathy to late arrivals, no matter what the excuse is. Arrive a second later then 45 minutes before your flights scheduled departure and they won’t let you board. You can now avoid this stress by checking in on-line and heading straight to the boarding gate around 30 minutes before departure but remember if you have bags to check in you still must be at the airport in plenty of time to ensure your bags are dropped off before the 45 minute cut off.

2. Check that they are actually they cheapest! Baggage allowance and food are never included in the initial booking price. If you are purchasing these extra add-ons make sure you shop around! Sometimes you might find a competitive flight with a full service carrier. However, if you want to be cheap like me, I bring my own food, a book to keep me entertained and pack light so I can just take carry-on.

3. Don’t exceed your baggage allowance! Whilst standing in line to wait to check-in I have seen people being pulled aside by airline staff because their baggage weighs too much. You can tell as they are scrambling through their suitcase thinking about what items they can ditch, or better still add to their current outfit so it’s not measured in their bags weight. It’s not just check-in bags they are strict with, but also carry-ons. For carry-on you are allowed what I believe is a quite generous 10kg. This weight can be spread out between two pieces of carry-on luggage provided that each does not exceed the dimensions of 54cm X 38cm X 23cm. Excess baggage charges start at a whopping $20 a kilogram.

4. Expect the unexpected! I have found that not only is Tigerair itself definitely a budget airline but their services outside the plane are too. The terminal is a budget terminal and lacks the shops and eateries that one might be used to. Having said this the Melbourne Airport terminal (T4) that Tigerair uses is being completely redeveloped and is under construction currently. Around this time next year the airline will be operating out of a brand new dedicated low cost terminal in Melbourne which will greatly improve the customer experience at check in and arrivals.

The verdict 

Love them or hate them I will give them one thing, they are cheap. Just don’t expect any frills!


MH370: Search to resume

The most complex search in aviation history is about to resume, 1800km west of Perth, Western Australia, for the final resting place of MH370 and the 239 souls aboard.

Yesterday the Australian Deputy Prime Minister Warren Truss, on behalf of the Australian, Chinese and Malaysian governments, announced that Dutch company Fugro Survey Pty Ltd would conduct the 12-month $52 million ocean floor search for MH370 which disappeared on March 8.

That effort will commence mid September when the mapping of the sea floor concludes.

Rather that using an autonomous underwater submersible that has to be recovered every 16 hours, two ships will deploy towed side-scan sonar vehicles with video capability that will stream data live to the operators.

Mr Truss said he remained “cautiously optimistic that” the international search effort will locate the missing plane “within the priority search area.”

But he cautioned that the search, with depths to 6000m, will be “challenging.”

The priority search area, determined by five independent expert teams, is 650km long and 93km wide.
“Hopefully we will find the aircraft or a debris field … so we can provide closure to the families involved and information to support the investigation,” said Mr Truss.

Survey ships, also under contract to Fugro, have been mapping the area since late April and have surveyed over 60 per cent of the search area according to Australia’s crash investigator.

Martin Dolan, chief commissioner of the Australian Transport Safety Bureau told that the mapping effort had thrown up some surprises such as “two extinct volcanoes.”

“There are many features we had no idea about, which is why the mapping is so necessary,” said Mr Dolan.

The search area was last surveyed in 1960 by The Australian naval ship HMAS Diamantina.

Assets for the subsea search are already mobilising with Fugro Discovery en route to Perth from the United Kingdom.
Fugro Equator, currently acquiring bathymetry (mapping) data in the search area, will be the second search vessel and will be mobilised when the bathymetry work is complete in mid-September.

The Malaysian Government has also committed to support the joint search effort with four vessels.

The Chinese vessel, the Zhu Kezhen, continues to work in the southern Indian Ocean, surveying the sea floor.
China has committed to the Zhu Kezhen remaining in the search area until mid-September.


ICAO to move on aircraft security

The United Nations governing body of aviation is to set up a special task force of state and industry experts to greatly enhance the dissemination and sharing of critical security information to protect civilian aircraft.

In a special meeting in Montreal today The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), the International Air Transport Association (IATA), Airports Council International (ACI) and the Civil Air Navigation Services Organisation (CANSO), have expressed their strong condemnation of the use of weapons against civil aviation.

In a joint statement after the meeting at ICAO headquarters the four organizations said that the downing of Malaysia Airlines Flight MH17 is unacceptable.

“Our organizations wish to convey our deepest condolences to the families of the passengers and crew who lost their lives in this tragic event. While aviation is the safest form of transport, the MH17 incident has raised troubling concerns with respect to civilian aircraft operating to, from and over conflict zones,” a joint statement said.

The meeting resolved to urgently review the issues and potential responses to be pursued.
“As a first step, States (countries) have been reminded by ICAO of their responsibilities to address any potential risks to civil aviation in their airspace.”

“We recognize the essential need for information and intelligence that might affect the safety of our passengers and crew. This is a highly complex and politically sensitive area of international coordination, involving not only civil aviation regulations and procedures but also State national security and intelligence gathering activities,” said the joint statement.

All parties to the discussion agreed that ICAO now has an important role to play in working as urgently as possible with its Member States, in coordination with the aviation industry and other bodies within the United Nations, to ensure the right information reaches the right people at the right time.

Moving forward ICAO with support of its industry partners will:

• Immediately establish a senior-level Task Force composed of state and industry experts to address the civil aviation and national security aspects of this challenge, in particular how information can be effectively collected and disseminated.
• Submit the Task Force findings as urgently as possible to a Special Meeting of the ICAO Council for action.

Industry has called for ICAO to also address:

• Fail-safe channels for essential threat information to be made available to civil aviation authorities and industry.
• The need to incorporate into international law, through appropriate UN frameworks, measures to govern the design, manufacture and deployment of modern anti-aircraft weaponry.

ICAO is convening a High-level Safety Conference with all of its 191 Member States in February 2015.

The joint statement said that industry and governments stand united and committed to ensuring the safety and security of the global air transport system and its users.

The joint industry action came after calls from Emirates President Tim Clark’s call days after MH17 was shot down for a summit to ensure security information was made available to airlines.  

After the joint meeting IATA’s Director General and CEO Tony Tyler said that the tragic shooting-down of MH17 was an attack on the whole air transport industry. 

“The world’s airlines are angry. Civil aircraft are instruments of peace. They should not be the target of weapons of war. That is enshrined in international law through the Chicago Convention,” said Mr Tyler.

“We are asking ICAO to address two critical tasks. The first, and most urgent, is to ensure that governments provide airlines with better information with which to make risk assessments of the various threats they may face. The second is equally important but comes with a longer time frame. We will find ways through international law that will oblige governments better to control weapons which have the capability to pose a danger to civil aviation. Achieving these will make our safe industry even safer,” said Mr Tyler.

He added that clear, accurate and timely information on risks is critical.

“We were told that flights traversing Ukraine’s territory at above 32,000 feet would not be in harm’s way. We now know how wrong that guidance was. It is essential that airlines receive clear guidance regarding threats to their passengers, crew and aircraft. Such information must be accessible in an authoritative, accurate, consistent, and unequivocal way. This is the responsibility of States. There can be no excuses. Even sensitive information can be sanitized and still remain operationally relevant,” said Mr Tyler.

He noted that IATA stands willing to assist with the dissemination of such information.

Aviation: The Invisible Highway

It was filmed in 18 countries across all 7 continents and it is without a doubt the most impressive aviation documentary put together.

Aviation: The Invisible Highway is due for release next year and the first trailer has just been released (see below).

Flying has been a fantasy for thousands of years and then in just one century the science fiction has become a reality.

And that reality binds the world together in a way that few comprehend.

Every day 100,000 flights operated by 1,397 airlines carry over 8.5 million people across a mountain or across the globe.

There are 49,871 air routes across the world and there are 25,332 commercial aircraft in service.

More than that aviation is the super highway of commerce carrying 49.2 million tonnes of freight valued at $6.4 trillion, which is 35 per cent of world trade by value.

AirlineRatings will bring you more trailers as they are released as well as the film’s opening date. 

Air Algerie crash – 116 killed

An Air Algerie flight AH5017 with 110 passengers and 6 crew has crashed and their are no survivors. 

According to AP French President Francois Hollande says there are no survivors in the crash in Mali.

Hollande announced on Friday July 25th that one black box has been found in the debris after French troops reached the site in the Gossi region near the border with Burkina Faso.

According to AFP  the Air Algerie aircraft was seen “falling” in the region of Gossi, in northern Mali. 

“A witness informed us they had seen the plane falling at 0150 (GMT and local time Thursday),” said General Gilbert Diendiere, coordinator of the crisis told AFP. 

Reports aslo suggest that the flight may have been hit by lightning.

The flight was operating between Burkina Faso’s capital, Ouagadougou, to Algiers.

The aircraft, a twin-engine MD-83, chartered from Spanish Airline Swiftair, was 50 minutes into its flight when Algerian aviation authorities lost contact.

The aircraft departed at 0117 local time and was scheduled to arrive at 0510 local time.

According to Aviation Herald the Swiftair McDonnell Douglas MD-83 was operating on behalf of Air Algerie.

Swiftair and Air Algerie confirmed they lost contact with the aircraft at about 03:00 local time. Swiftair has set up a call center for family members of passengers: Phone number +34 900 264 270.

Weather was likely a factor. Aviation Herald adds that weather researcher Simon Proud at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) reported that the tops of the thunderstorm clouds in the area were above FL400 in that region around Gao, peaking up to FL500.

According to CNN Air Algerie sales manager Zoheir Houaoui told reporters Thursday that among the passengers, there were 50 people from France; 24 from Burkina Faso; eight Lebanese; six Algerians; five Canadians; four Germans; two from Luxembourg; one from Mali; one Cameroonian; one Belgian; one Ukrainian; one Romanian; one Swiss; one Nigerian; and one Egyptian.

The plane’s six crew members were Spanish.

Transasia crash kills 47

A Transasia ATR-72, registration B-22810 performing flight GE-222 from Kaohsiung to Makung on the island of Penghu (Taiwan) with 54 passengers and 4 crew, has crashed was on final approach to Makung’s runway 02 in strong gusting winds killing 47.

The aircraft on its second attempt to land crashed about 3000ft short of the runway, struck buildings and burst into flames.
According to reports 11 people received injuries and were taken to hospitals.

Website Aviation Herald says according to Taiwan authorities the ATR-72-212A registration B-22810 was 14 years in service.

The captain of the flight was 60 years of age with 22,900 hours of experience and his first officer was 39 with 2,300 hours of experience.

Taiwan’s DGCA said that the crew had decided to go around and positioned for a second approach, but contact was lost during the second attempt to land.

The weather conditions for landing were suitable at 5000ft visibility and two other aircraft had successfully landed just prior to the accident aircraft.

Aviation Herald said that emergency services reported that the crew had aborted the first approach due to heavy rain reducing visibility.

Two people aboard the plane were French citizens and the rest Taiwanese.

Typhoon Matmo had just passed across the island, causing heavy rains.

Over 200 airline flights had been canceled earlier in the day due to rain and strong winds.

Penghu, is a scenic chain of 64 islands and a popular tourist site about 90 miles southwest of Taipei.


Malaysia Airlines faces tough times

Not since Pan American World Airways lost four Boeing 707s in 10 months in the mid 1970s killing over 200 passengers has an airline’s reputation been so devastated by air disasters.

However, the loss of two Boeing 777s in five months with a sickening toll of 537 is far worse in an era where major air crashes are rare and media coverage instant and comprehensive.

Air travel today on major routes is incredibly safe with 100,000 flights a day carrying 8.3 million passengers. You have more change of being struck by lightning than being killed in an air crash. But those reassuring numbers are meaningless for travellers contemplating a trip.

Malaysia Airlines has been in the news every day since MH370 disappeared on March 8 in the most bizarre mystery of modern times.

Sickeningly, only the loss of MH17 to an apparent surface-to-air missile has pushed the earlier disappearance into the background.

Clearly the two are almost certainly unrelated but that will make little difference to intending passengers.
Incredibly 70 per cent of passengers have some level of fear of flying so two air crashes in five months is too much for most to overlook no matter what the airfare.

Passengers will understandably ask, what can possibly go wrong next?

Compounding that feeling has been the handling of MH370 with Malaysian government authorities making conflicting and contradictory statements that have sent all the wrong messages about the airline and Malaysia itself.

China has been a strident critic of the dissemination of information about MH370 by the Malaysian Government.
In fact only pressure from the media forced the government to provide to make public the interim report on MH370. Even then it was found wanting.

It has been left to the Australian Transport Safety Bureau, appointed by the Malaysians to lead the investigation, to fill in the gaps.

Numerous media reports relating to MH370 have been at first denied then later confirmed as fact leading to a feeling of confusion, which has reflected badly on the airline and the country.

However, the loss of MH370 would challenge most nations and not since 1972, when a flight was lost in the South American Andes for 72 days, has a commercial passenger aircraft disappeared.

In today’s instant communication era with Google Earth and find my phone apps most find it incomprehensible that an aircraft could be lost for over five months.

Conspiracy theories have flourished and these all tear at the heart of brand Malaysia Airlines a brand that travellers have grown to admire.

The airline was the first to introduce the Boeing 777-200ER, an aircraft that today, with the 777-300ER and -200LR is the backbone of the world’s international long haul fleets.

Its first, 9M-MRA, dubbed the Super Ranger set a then world distance record flying from Seattle to Kuala Lumpur and back to Seattle.

The flight also established a world speed record of flying around the world in 41 hours and 59 minutes.
Malaysia Airlines itself is an excellent operation with a fleet of almost 100 of the latest aircraft operating an extensive network throughout Malaysia and beyond.

The airline ticks all the key safety boxes having passed the International Air Transport Association comprehensive safety audit.
Malaysia the country also passes most of the International Civil Aviation Organization oversight audits, although it is well below compliance on its air crash investigation unit.

That shortfall was exposed when MH370 was lost and the government’s aviation authority struggled to come to grips with what had happened.

But the airline’s operational side has always been impressive.

One very important safety aspect is cockpit harmony and an atmosphere and culture that promote junior pilots to speak up if they see something wrong.

Prior to 9/11, I spent many hours in the cockpits of Malaysia Airlines aircraft and was impressed by the camaraderie and professionalism of its pilots. There was always a positive atmosphere.

Before the loss of MH370, the airline had enjoyed a fatality free jet record since 1977 when a hijacker took over a 737 and apparently crashed the aircraft killing 100.

It has won awards for its maintenance from Boeing, Fokker and Airbus and its Crew Resource Management program is a model that many airlines in Asia followed.

But the bad news is not going to go away and may get worse.

MH17 and particularly MH370 will remain in the news for months and possibly years.

When the search resumes for MH370 late in August attention will again focus off Perth and once the aircraft is found there will be a massive influx of international media.

One producer from CNN told that when the first images emerge of MH370, the media interest will be as great as the Olympics.

For Malaysia Airlines there is going to be no respite from the bad publicity and thus passenger numbers will plummet further.

Put simply – if it wasn’t a government owned airline it would collapse.





MH17: Aviation summit call

A pair of respected voices in the aviation industry is calling for high-level action in the wake of the shoot down of Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 late last week. Reuters reports Tim Clark, president of globe-girdling Emirates, wants an international conclave of carriers to “respond as an entity” to the downing of the Boeing 777. All 298 souls on board the aircraft perished. Clark wants the International Air Transport Association (IATA) to convene the meeting.

Now comes word that Flight Safety Foundation is urging the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) to convene what it terms in a prepared release a “High-Level Ministerial meeting to review the systems in place to warn airlines of hostile airspace and take action in response to the shoot down.” FSF further calls for “authorities to bring criminal prosecutions against those who brought down the aircraft and interfered with the investigation. “This tragically unfolding affront to safety, security, and humanity must be dealt with swiftly and surely by the international aviation community and law enforcement,” says FSF President and CEO Jon Beatty.

The respected safety expert says, “Where known threats to civil aviation exist, States should assess and widely publish this information, or close the airspace. If States cannot discharge their responsibilities to manage their airspace safely, ICAO should play a leading role to alerting or prohibiting airlines from flying through known, hostile airspace.”

Reuters reports German flag carrier Lufthansa has joined in Emirates call for action.

On Monday, after the Clark statement and before Flight Safety Foundation’s announcement, IATA Director General & CEO Tony Tyler said, “No effort should be spared ensuring that this outrage is not repeated”¦Governments will need to take the lead in reviewing how airspace risk assessments are made. And the industry will do all it can to support governments, through ICAO, in the difficult work that lies ahead.”

In response to rivals Emirates and Lufthansa endorsements of a summit, European powerhouse British Airways says, “Safety and security are our top priorities at all times. We work closely with ICAO and IATA who are responsible for any new industry wide protocols and standards.”

The issue is what specific procedures and protocols need adjustments in the wake of the new threat?

Up until now the industry has focused on the potential havoc wreaked by so-called MANPADS, Man-Portable Air Defense Systems. These are shoulder-mounted surface-to-air missiles of limited vertical range. Now, with startling suddenness, airlines and governments must reckon with the potential danger posed by vehicle-mounted missiles such as the SA-11, purported to be the sophisticated weapons system that brought down MH17. The SA-11 can reach altitudes in excess of 30,000 feet. The ill-fated Triple-Seven was at 33,000 fleet when the Russian-built missile allegedly struck it.

Should a summit happen, airlines will have to wrestle once again with balancing safety and economics. Ukraine in particular is an airborne crossroads, a place traversed daily by flights bound from Europe to Southeast Asia. Detouring around that airspace, or airspace above any zone of armed conflict, costs carrier’s extra fuel. In a perfect world you’d fly directly from Point A to Point B.

There’s no quick and easy fix for this one.

Ironically, even as airlines and governments began to assess this new, potentially game-changing threat, the United States Federal Aviation Administration shut down air routes from the US to Israel for 24 hours, this after a rocket hit a mere mile from Tel Aviv’s Ben Gurion Airport. In a prepared release FAA says, “On July 22, 2014, the FAA issued a Notice to Airmen (NOTAM) informing U.S. airlines that they are prohibited from flying to or from Israel’s Ben Gurion International Airport for a period of up to 24 hours…The NOTAM applies only to U.S. operators, and has no authority over foreign airlines operating to or from the airport.”

FAA says it will “continue to monitor and evaluate the situation.”



List of banned countries grows

The US aviation authority has widened its overfly warnings to eastern Ukraine, Kenya and Ethiopia as countries around the world reassess flight operations over war zones in the wake of the loss of MH17.

The Federal Aviation Administration now list 14 countries with bans or partial warnings for commercial aircraft.

Two with the highest risk are Afghanistan and Iraq which lie in the path of many flights between Asia and Europe.

According to the FAA “due to ongoing military operations and insurgent attacks in Afghanistan, the FAA warns that civil aircraft could be damaged by small-arms fire, rocket fire or attacks using man-portable air defense systems.”

However there is no evidence yet that insurgents have missile systems capable of bring down a high flying aircraft at 11,000m.
Iraq has returned to the hot spot status and the FAA prohibits flight operations at or below 6,700m due to the threat of shorter range missiles and small arms fire.

For Syria the FAA states that it discourages flight operations over Syria, saying, “no part of Syria should be considered immune from violence.”

US authorities have also warned about Libya and say that it prohibits flight operations within the Tripoli Flight Information Region, which includes small northern sections of Niger and Chad in addition to Libya.

Ethiopia has also made the banned list with the FAA warning that flight operations are prohibited in northern Ethiopian airspace.
It also cautions that Ethiopian forces may fire upon aircraft crossing into Ethiopian airspace from northeastern Kenya.

On Kenya the FAA adds that “recent, credible information indicates a potential near-term terrorist attack against US and Western interests in Kenya,” warning against attacks using Man-Portable Air-Defense System (MANPADS).

While not on the FAA banned list Nigeria and the Central African Republic, are listed as war zones with ongoing conflicts.
Other Africa countries where conflicts rage are South Sudan, Mali and Yemen.

And the deteriorating situation in Egypt has led the FAA to ban flights below 8,000m over the Egypt Sinai Peninsula.

Change of flight routes?

The downing Malaysia Airlines MH17 with 283 passengers and 15 crew by a sophisticated surface to air missile is likely to cause a paradigm shift in the thinking of flight paths over trouble spots and war zones.

Both the International Civil Aviation Organisation and the International Air Transport Association had apparently declared the flight route taken by MH17 as safe, probably because of the very high altitude the aircraft fly over Ukraine.

It is understood that all airspace above 30,000ft was cleared and at the time of the tragedy there were at least 50 planes crossing Ukraine in all directions – including over the conflict area.

In fact there was a Singapore Airlines Boeing 777 and an Air India 787 only 25km from the Malaysia 777 when it was shot down according to Flightradar 24.

IATA’s Director General and CEO Tony Tyler said that he shared the shock and sadness expressed by so many around the world on the terrible loss of MH 17. 

“At this time, it is important we are very clear: safety is the top priority. No airline will risk the safety of their passengers, crew and aircraft for the sake of fuel savings. Airlines depend on governments and air traffic control authorities to advise which air space is available for flight, and they plan within those limits,” said Mr Tyler.

“It is very similar to driving a car. If the road is open, you assume that it is safe. If it’s closed you find an alternate route. Civil aircraft are not military targets. Governments agreed that in the Chicago Convention. And what happened with MH 17 is a tragedy for 298 souls that should not have happened in any airspace.”

Aircraft have been flying over trouble spots for decades without incident because typically insurgents lack the military hardware to reach the cruising altitudes of high flying commercial or military jets.

Certainly a few commercial passenger aircraft have been shot down but typically at lower altitudes or by the military in supposed mix-ups.

However with rebels and terrorists becoming more sophisticated and some countries willing to supply more capable hardware the threat of another shoot down of a high altitude passenger aircraft is all too real.

There is also the deep concern that other terrorists groups wanting to emulate the “success” of the shoot down.

Aviation authorities and airlines will now have to go to great lengths to assure the travelling public that air routes are well clear of trouble spots.

Changing air routes particularly those from SE Asia to Europe will add considerably to the operational challenges as extra fuel will be required to fly more circuitous routes.

Potentially there are a number of areas that airlines may now avoid such as Afghanistan, parts of Pakistan, Iraq, Syria as well as Ukraine.

Interestingly one of the most cooperative countries for over flights has been Iran which wants the US dollars that airlines must pay to fly over its territory.

And while airlines will be striving to assure passengers they are avoiding trouble spots, passengers themselves will possible start avoiding Malaysia Airlines.

The double loss of MH370 and MH17 is a terrible blow to the airline. If the airline wasn’t government owned it would likely collapse from the impact of these tragedies. But it will survive.

For the wider industry the losses will also have an impact as passengers rethink air travel in general despite the fact that it is the world’s safest mode of transport with 100,000 flights carrying 8.25 million passengers every day.

Today the loss of a large modern commercial jet aircraft with a first rate airline is extremely rare – so two such losses in the space of 132 days is devastating to the industry’s safety record.



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